- Carotid groove – Sphenoidal lingula
- the surface not included in the base(s)
- In geometry, the lateral surface of a solid is the face or surface of the solid on its sides. That is, any face or surface that is not a base.
- A solid geometric figure with straight parallel sides and a circular or oval section
- a surface generated by rotating a parallel line around a fixed line
- a solid bounded by a cylindrical surface and two parallel planes (the bases)
- a chamber within which piston moves
- A solid or hollow body, object, or part with such a shape
- A piston chamber in a steam or internal combustion engine
- WEATHER “This is the captain speaking. Due to an area of weather over New Jersey, we’ll be turning southbound toward Philadelphia…”
lateral surface area of a cylinder – Predictability of
Numerical ocean modeling usually composes various initial- and boundary-value problems. It integrates hydrodynamic and thermodynamic equations numerically with atmospheric forcing and boundary conditions (lateral and vertical) from initial states of temperature, salinity and velocity. Past observations, historical datasets and climatological datasets of the ocean have contributed greatly to the knowledge of the data fields of initial condition, atmospheric forcing and boundary conditions. Change in either initial or boundary condition leads to a variety of model solutions. It is necessary to specify realistic initial and boundary conditions to achieve better understanding and prediction of the ocean behavior. However, uncertainty often exists in both initial and boundary conditions. Up to now, most studies on ocean predictability have usually been for one particular type of model input uncertainty within the three types of uncertainty (initial conditions, open boundary conditions, atmospheric forcing function). This thesis investigates the response of ocean model to the three types of model input uncertainty simultaneously using Princeton Ocean Model (POM) implemented for the Japan/East Sea (JES).
The Parachute Jump
Inspired by the growing popularity of civilian parachuting and towers constructed to teach the military correct technique. Commander James H. Strong’s Parachute Jump was erected for the 1939-40 New York’s World’s Fair in Flushing Meadow. As detailed by Elwyn E. Seelye & Company, the 170-ton tower stands 262 feet tall, a height exceeded at the fair only by that of the famous Trylon.
It was considered to be an engineering feat. The mechanisms within the tapered steel structure permitted fair visitors to ride to the top and safely descend, two-by-two, perched on a seat beneath a parachute. The exhilarating ride provided the couple with an unsurpassed view of the fairgrounds. After the closing of the fair, the Parachute Jump was purchased by the Tilyou. brothers and moved to their Steeplechase Park, Coney Island’s most famous and longest enduring amusement park. Steeplechase had bean founded by their father, George C. Tilyou , whose enterprises at the turn of the century helped to revive Coney as a wholesome family resort.
Steeplechase was closed in 1964; however, the Parachute Jump continued to function until 1968. Still a prominent feature of the Brooklyn skyline, today the tower stands unused, but in fundamentally sound structural condition.
The History of Coney Island
Coney Island has played a part in the history of New York since the first days of European exploration, when Henry Hudson docked his ship, the Half Moon, off its coast in 1609. Lady Deborah Moody and forty followers settled Gravesend, the area north of Coney Island, in 1643; she bought the island itself from the Canarsie Indians in 1654. Not until 1824 did the Gravesend and Coney Island Road and Bridge Company build a shell road from the thriving center of Gravesend to what is now West 8th Street on the island.
Along with the commencement of steamer ship service from New York in 1847, this improved access allowed about a half dozen small hotels to spring up by the 1860s. During this period many famous Americans rusticated there: Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and Walt Whitman.
But the nature of vacationing at Coney Island changed quickly during the 1870s, when several railroad companies began service from Brooklyn; the completion of F.L. Olmsted’s Ocean Parkway, a designated New York City Scenic Landmark, also provided a comfortable route for carriages. Grand hotels and restaurants accommodated the mostly well-to-do visitors, who came to enjoy not only the ocean and cool sea breezes but also the amusements which were transforming Coney into the most famous family park among its American counterparts.
A festive atmosphere was ensured by the transferral to Coney Island of structures from the dismantled Centennial Exposition which had been held in Philadelphia in 1876.
Coney Island developed into "America’s first and probably still most symbolic commitment to mechanized leisure.The island increasingly became the site for technologically advanced structures such as the balloon hangar, elephant-shaped hotel and observatory , and the Iron Pier which housed many amusements.
Mechanically-driven rides were pioneered at Coney,, one example being LaMarcus A. Thompson’s Switchback Railway , a precursor of the roller coaster. Most of these rides succeeded because they combined socially acceptable thrills with undertones of sexual intimacy.
Indeed, Coney Island, which earned the sobriquet "Sodom by the Sea," was "the only place in the United States that Sigmund Freud said interested him." As early as 1883, Coney’s name was identified with entertainment, proven by the renaming of a midwestern park as "Ohio Grove, The Coney Island of the West."
Between 1880 and 1910 its three large and successful racetracks gave Coney Island the reputation as the horseracing capital of the country. In addition to gamblers, such features attracted confidence men, roughnecks, and prostitutes. Coney’s many activities could be viewed from above in the three-hundred-foot Iron Tower . This most notorious phase of Coney’s history ended around the turn of the century after many hotels burned down in fires during the 1890s and racetrack betting was outlawed by the state in 1910.
A movement led by George C. Tilyou to transform Coney’s corrupt image introduced the idea of the enclosed amusement park to American recreation. By 1894 there were dozens of separately owned rides; but the following year Capt. Paul Boyton opened Sea Lion Park, a group of rides and attractions one enjoyed after paying an admission fee at the gate. During the next decade, Coney’s three most famous enclosed parks opened: Steeplechase Park , Luna Park, and Dreamland, forming "the largest and most glittering amusement area in the world.
Throughout Coney Island and intermingled with rides and food vendors, were other typical carnival features such as freak sh
CURTISS MODEL E FLYING BOAT (HULL ONLY)
In January 1911 Curtiss flew one of his standard Model D pusher biplanes fitted with floats from the waters off San Diego, California. He later modified this airplane with the addition of wingtip floats for lateral balance. This aircraft was the basis of the early Curtiss Model E hydroaeroplane.
In 1911, Curtiss offered his standard Model E land airplane with engines ranging from a 40-horsepower four-cylinder to a 75-horsepower V8. The 75-horsepower version was also offered as a hydroaeroplane. Floats for the hydro version weighed 125 pounds and could be installed by trained mechanics in two hours.
The first airplane purchased by the U.S. Navy was a Curtiss Model E hydroaeroplane and was given the Navy designation A-1 in early 1911. The Navy purchased a second Model E in July 1911, with a more powerful 80-horsepower Curtiss OX engine, and designated it the A-2. It was also known as the OWL, standing for Over Water and Land. Modifications of the A-2 by the Navy led to re-designations of E-1 and later AX-1. These modifications, done at the Curtiss plant at Hammondsport, New York, included moving the seats from the lower wing to the float and enclosing the crew area with a fabric-covered framework, giving the aircraft the appearance of a short-hull flying boat.
The OWL, with its modified float, was developed into a true flying boat (the entire fuselage being a hull as opposed to mounting the aircraft on a separate float) by Curtiss in 1912, first with the Model D Flying Boat, and then a refined version, the Model E. The Model E Flying Boat was the first truly practical flying boat. It was powered by either a 60- or a 75-horsepower Curtiss V8 engine. Both the U.S. Army and Navy purchased Curtiss Model E Flying Boats, the Navy designating it the C-1.
The most successful version of the pre-war Curtiss flying boats was the Model F, which was produced in far greater numbers than any of the other models. It was offered in many variants and continued in production until 1919. The Navy designated it the C-2. The Model F perfected the flying boat design with the incorporation of a V hull, supplanting the less efficient flat-bottomed hull of the Model E. The Model F was well received by U.S. military and civilian markets, and with the onset of the First World War, Curtiss enjoyed substantial success abroad as well with sales of the Model F to England, Germany, France, Italy, Russia, and Japan.
During the course of his hydroaeroplane and flying boat development, Glenn Curtiss incorporated design innovations that made the seaplane a practical reality, beginning with the enclose hull, covered with fabric for strength and water tightness. Curtiss, with assistance from Royal Navy engineer Lt. John Cyril Porte, further enhanced the ability of waterborne aircraft to get off the water by constructing a mid-way "step" on the bottom of the float or hull. Water has adhesive qualities, especially when running over a curved surface, and early seaplanes had difficulty getting "unstuck" from the water, especially in calm seas. The addition of the step helped break up the water flow under the hull enabling the flying boat to get airborne more easily. Curtiss also added breather tubes to the flying boat hull. These were small copper tubes that ran from the inside of the hull to the undersurface step to relieve the low pressure under the hull and assisted the aircraft in becoming airborne.
Among the Curtiss Model E Flying Boats produced in 1913 was one sold to Logan A. "Jack" Vilas of Chicago. Vilas’ Model E was powered by a 90-horsepower Curtiss OX engine. With this aircraft, Vilas made the first crossing of Lake Michigan, flying from St. Joseph, Michigan, to Grant Park on Chicago’s waterfront in July 1913. Vilas donated the hull of his Model E Flying Boat to the Smithsonian Institution in 1949. Nothing else of the aircraft survives.
lateral surface area of a cylinder